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农业部发布控制小麦赤霉病危害技术指导意见

放大字体  缩小字体 发布日期:2016-04-13  来源:农业部  浏览次数:854271
内容摘要:  4月中下旬,各地陆续进入小麦赤霉病预防控制的关键时期。受气候异常、抗性品种缺乏和耕作制度改变等多种因素影响,近年赤霉病
    4月中下旬,各地陆续进入小麦赤霉病预防控制的关键时期。受气候异常、抗性品种缺乏和耕作制度改变等多种因素影响,近年赤霉病呈加重发生态势,严重威胁小麦生产稳定发展和小麦产品质量安全。据专家会商分析,预计2016年长江中下游、江淮和黄淮南部小麦赤霉病重流行风险极高。为有效控制赤霉病发生危害,现提出以下技术指导意见。

农民信息网 www.qyemcl.cn 一、防治策略。按照赤霉病发生危害规律,坚持分类指导,分区施策。长江中下游、江淮和黄淮南部等小麦赤霉病常发麦区,必须坚持“主动出击”不动摇,全面落实预防控制措施;黄淮中北部、华北南部麦区,要坚持“预防为主”不放松,一旦抽穗扬花期遇连阴雨、结露等适宜病害流行的天气,立即组织施药,严防病害发生流行。

二、防治技术。为控制赤霉病发生、降低毒素污染,要及时喷施对路药剂预防。一是坚持“见花打药、适期防治”。小麦齐穗至扬花初期是预防控制小麦赤霉病发生危害的最佳时期,“见花打药”可起到事半功倍的效果。如遇到连阴雨、大面积结露和雾霾等适宜病害流行天气,应在第一次用药5-7天后,再次喷药防治,切实做到雨前预防和雨后控制相结合。二是坚持“科学选药、轮换用药”。优先考虑耐雨水冲刷的剂型,保证用药效果;需二次用药的田块,推荐轮换使用不同作用机理的药剂品种,以延缓抗药性产生。尤其是出现多菌灵抗性问题的地区,建议选用氰烯菌酯、戊唑醇等三唑类药剂及其复配制剂,确保预防控制效果、降低毒素污染风险。三是坚持“强化田管,改善环境”。要加强田间管理,科学运筹肥水,防止小麦群体过大造成植株郁闭,改善通风透光条件;及时清沟理墒,降低田间湿度,避免形成适宜病害流行的环境条件,以减轻病害流行危害。

此外,以赤霉病预防控制为重点,兼顾白粉病、蚜虫、粘虫等小麦穗期重大病虫害防控。同时,坚持防病治虫和控旺防衰相结合,分类指导、科学防控、药肥混用、保粒增重。

三、防治方式。要适应小麦赤霉病预防控制时效性强的特点,充分发挥行政推动主导优势和专业化防治组织骨干作用,坚持统一组织发动、统一技术方案、统一药剂供应、统一施药时间,统一防控行动“五统一”,做到专业化统防统治和群防群治相结合,常规防治和应急防治相结合,提高防控组织化程度。

四、保障措施。一是强化组织发动,确保防控责任到位。各级农民信息网部门要充分认识做好小麦赤霉病预防控制的重大意义,切实加强组织领导,细化工作方案,及早安排部署,层层落实责任,强化督导检查,确保预防控制措施落实到位。二是强化监测调查,确保预报预警到位。各级植?;乖诩忧考嗖獾鞑?,准确掌握苗情、病情基础上,主动与气象部门沟通,密切关注天气变化,及时分析会商发生流行态势,准确发布预报预警信息,明确重点防控区域和最佳防控时间,科学指导防控行动。三是强化指导服务,确保防控技术到位。要充分利用广播、电视、报刊等媒体,以及召开现场会、发放明白纸等多种形式,宣传赤霉病防控的重要性。防控关键时期,组派技术精干力量进村入户、包片驻点,普及防控技术和安全用药知识,及时指导农民做好防控工作。四是强化统防统治,确保防控效果到位。结合实施小麦“一喷三防”和重大病虫防控补助项目,并积极争取地方财政加大投入,充分发挥专业化防治组织示范引领作用,大力推进专业化统防统治,全面提高防控效果、效率和效益。

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